Crew Resource Management (CRM) is the application of human factors knowledge and skills to the efficient and safe flight operations with the objective of properly using all available resources (equipment, systems and people). CRM combines individual skills and human factors knowledge with effective crew coordination.
Commercial air transport remains one of the safest means of transportation of people and goods from one point to another. The number of fatal incidents per mile travelled is extraordinarily low compared to other means of transport. However the industry suffers a paradox of very low accident rate but a very high potential for loss of life when an accident does occur.
Humans, by their very nature, make mistakes; therefore, it should come as no surprise that human error has been implicated in a variety of occupational accidents, including 70% to 80% of those in civil and military aviation
but what this term fails to recognize is that humans are but one part of the wider environment – they must interact with many components including weather, technology, social systems etc. Despite this, humans are at the most very basic level the root cause of almost every incident because humans ultimately design and/or interact with all elements of the wider environment.
The essential reason for the existence of air Airline carriers is to safely transport people and goods from one place to another. Management of risk and threat is the key to managing safety and therefore many aviation systems (such as weather planning, air traffic control and flight deck warning systems) exist to manage risk.
Modern crew resource management focuses upon the management of all available resources to reduce error including all groups of aviation specialists (e.g. air traffic controllers, pilots, cabin crewmembers, engineers and dispatchers) through goal setting, teamwork, awareness and both pro- and reactive feedback (Helmreich).
The training of Crew Resource Management for commercial aircrew has become a mandatory practise under the majority of the world aviation regulatory environments (CAA, FAA, JAR, EASA) and practice of Crew Resource Management is an integral part of commercial airline training and operations.
.CRM as a response to new insights into the causes of aircraft accidents
CRM was developed as a response to new insights into the causes of aircraft accidents which followed from the introduction of flight data recorders (FDRs) and cockpit voice recorders (CVRs) into modern jet aircraft. Information gathered from these devices has suggested that many accidents do not result from a technical malfunction of the aircraft or its systems, nor from a failure of aircraft handling skills or a lack of technical knowledge on the part of the crew; it appears instead that they are caused by the inability of crews to respond appropriately to the situation in which they find themselves. For example, inadequate communications between crew members and other parties could lead to a loss of situational awareness, a breakdown in teamwork in the aircraft, and, ultimately, to a wrong decision or series of decisions which result in a serious incident or a fatal accident.
Crew resource management is a model of management used to manage threat and error in aviation.
The core elements of CRM
These core elements allow throughputs to be created which enhance system performance.
By using the core elements and throughputs of goals, teamwork (communication/cooperation), situational awareness and feedback the crew practice threat detection and error avoidance behaviours.
Example application of the crew resource management model
Date: 14 August 2005
‘’May Day: Ghost Plane”
Unable to identify HYPOXIA signs and symptoms
Hellenic Air Accident Investigation and Aviation Safety Board
How may this accident been prevented?
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